The United Nations Compensation Commission (UNCC), Kuwait National Focal Point (KNFP) and Kuwait Oil Company (KOC) cooperated in a joint project to undertake comprehensive and collaborative efforts to remediate 26 million m3 of contaminated soil that had resulted from the Gulf War. The damage caused by the war includes features such as wet and dry oil lakes, contaminated piles, coastal deposits, oil-filled trenches, and wellhead pits. This contaminated soil has altered the desert soil’s properties and ecological landscape, causing the deaths of plants and animals. UNCC initially recommended to construct engineered landfills to encompass the contaminated soil. To minimize number of landfills in active oil fields, KOC has developed Total Remediation Solution (TRS) for KERP which will indicates the immediate and future remediation projects. The TRS comprises of alternative remedial solutions with treatment techniques inclusive of limited landfills for non-treatable soil materials disposal and relies on treating certain ranges of Total Petroleum Hydrocarbon (TPH) contaminations with the most appropriate remediation techniques. The TRS comprises of the five key components; a) Risk Based Approach (RBA), b) Enhanced Bioremediation, c) Remediation Treatment Technologies, d) Oily sludge Disposal via Beneficial Re-use and e) Engineered landfills.

As part of the South East Kuwait Remediation Program, FEED works was initiated which consist of Site Characterization works and selection of suitable remediation methodology. A key component of the evaluation of oil contaminated sites (wet oil lakes, dry oil lakes and oil-contaminated piles) to know the degree of contamination level. FEED works predominantly focused on Total Petroleum Hydrocarbon (TPH) parameter, is primarily used for evaluation of oil-contaminated sites, and address the remediation approach. The treatment strategy of South Kuwait Remediation program will comprise
works such as excavation, segregation, mixing, loading and transportation of dry material and/or oil sludge mixed 1) to stockpile areas, 2) to use of remediation technologies such as soil bioremediation (up to 5% of TPH) and combination of treatment technologies (e.g. soil washing, chemical, solvent extraction, etc) for soil with more than 5% to 7% TPH. 3) to the landfill cells for permanent containment for oil sludge and other untreatable materials. The contaminated soil will be segregated based on the Site soil characterization into four separate material streams for different treatment or disposal approaches based on a Remediation Target Criteria (RTC) for soil with Total Petroleum Hydrocarbons (TPH) ranging from 1 % to ≤5 %, from > 5 % to ≤ 7%, > 7% to ≤ 10%, > 10% to ≤ 15% and > 15% (including oily sludge).
Finally, this paper highlights that the proposed remediation program which will be utilize environmentally sustainable approach and in effective timely manner of this SEK remediation project to achieve both compliance and compliant with the intent of UNCC directives, and reduce the legacy of landfill management and maintenance in KOC fields.

Primary Author / Conference Presenter:
Muthanna Al-Mumin
Team Leader Soil Remediation Project II
Kuwait Oil Company
Ahmadi, Kuwait

Aisha Al-baroud, Sr. Environment Engineer, Kuwait Oil Company, Kuwait